Editor's Note: Tiya Miles is chairwoman of the Department of Afro-American and African Studies, and professor of history and Native American studies at the University of Michigan. She is the author of "Ties That Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom" and "The House on Diamond Hill: A Cherokee Plantation Story." She is also the winner of a 2011 "genius grant" from the MacArthur Foundation.
By Tiya Miles, Special to CNN
(CNN) – African American history, as it is often told, includes two monumental migration stories: the forced exodus of Africans to the Americas during the brutal Middle Passage of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, and the voluntary migration of Black residents who moved from southern farms and towns to northern cities in the early 1900s in search of “the warmth of other suns.” A third African-American migration story–just as epic, just as grave–hovers outside the familiar frame of our historical consciousness. The iconic tragedy of Indian Removal: the Cherokee Trail of Tears that relocated thousands of Cherokees to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), was also a Black migration. Slaves of Cherokees walked this trail along with their Indian owners.
In 1838, the U.S. military and Georgia militia expelled Cherokees from their homeland with little regard for Cherokee dignity or life. Families were rousted out of their cabins and directed at gunpoint by soldiers. Forced to leave most of their possessions behind, they witnessed white Georgians taking ownership of their cabins, looting and burning once cherished objects. Cherokees were loaded into “stockades” until the appointed time of their departure, when they were divided into thirteen groups of nearly 1,000 people, each with two appointed leaders. The travelers set out on multiple routes to cross Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri and Arkansas at 10 miles a day with meager supplies.
At points along the way, the straggling bands were charged fees by white farmers to cross privately owned land. The few wagons available were used to carry the sick, infant, and elderly. Most walked through the fall and into the harsh winter months, suffering the continual deaths of loved ones to cold, disease, and accident. Among these sojourners were African Americans and Cherokees of African descent. They, like thousands of other Cherokees, arrived in Indian Country in 1839 broken, depleted, and destitute.
In addition to bearing the physical and emotional hardships of the trip, enslaved Blacks were enlisted to labor for Cherokees along the way; they hunted, chopped wood, nursed the sick, washed clothes, prepared the meals, guarded the camps at night, and hiked ahead to remove obstructions from the roads.
One Cherokee man, Nathaniel Willis, remembered in the 1930s that: “My grandparents were helped and protected by very faithful Negro slaves who . . . went ahead of the wagons and killed any wild beast who came along.” Nearly 4,000 Cherokees died during the eviction, as did an unaccounted for number of Blacks. As one former slave of Cherokees, Eliza Whitmire, said in the 1930s: “The weeks that followed General Scott’s order to remove the Cherokees were filled with horror and suffering for the unfortunate Cherokees and their slaves.”
Although Black presence on the Trail of Tears is a documented historical fact, many have willed it into forgetfulness.
Some African Americans avoid confronting the painful reality of Native American slave ownership, preferring instead to fondly imagine any Indian ancestor in the family tree and to picture all Indian communities in the South as safe havens for runaway slaves.
Some Cherokee citizens and Native people of other removed slaveholding tribes (Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles) have also denied this history, desiring to cordon off forced removal as an atrocious wrong that affected only Native Americans. By excluding Blacks (many of whom had Native “blood”) from a claim on this history, these deniers also seek to expel the descendants of Freedmen and women from the circle of tribal belonging. For it is the memory of this collective tragedy, perhaps more than any other, that binds together Cherokees who draw strength from having survived it.
As a researcher whose work focuses on African-American and Native American histories, I have encountered this resistance. A few years ago, I spoke on the subject of Blacks in the Cherokee removal at a conference of the National Trail of Tears Association. One member of the audience, a Cherokee instructor of Cherokee history, insisted that this was an historical event only for Cherokees, a story that rightfully belonged to them alone. This is a view shared by a former principal chief of the Cherokee Nation, who reportedly implied in a published remark that descendants of Freedpeople do not deserve tribal rights because they did not suffer the collective trauma of removal. The Trail of Tears is a sacred story to the Cherokees, as in special and set apart. It carries a meaningful lesson across time and space—about greed, injustice, and the perseverance of a people staring into a bleak and unknown future. However, a potent story shared with others is not necessarily diminished by the sharing; it might instead grow stronger in its ability to enlighten.
For Black History Month, I collected the opinions of individuals rarely asked about their view of the Trail of Tears: descendants of slaves owned by Cherokees. Common themes in the responses I received were pain at having their history publicly denied and pride in their ancestors’ ability to survive multiple trials.
Kenneth Cooper, a Cherokee Freedmen descendant and Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist who has researched his family history through oral and documentary methods, has a great-great-great grandfather, Thomas Still, who walked the Trail of Tears. Cooper said, “At least one of my ancestors was on the Trail of Tears—by double compulsion. The U.S. troops compelled his mixed-white Cherokee owner, who compelled my ancestor to come and, presumably, provide for his needs.”
Terry Ligon, a descendant of Choctaw and Chickasaw slaves who writes a blog about the topic, was frustrated because “the typical story about the ‘Trails of Tears’ speaks to the horrors of uprooting ‘Native Americans’ from their homes...[while] the story that rarely gets told is the tears shed by people of African descent who were enslaved within these same tribes of ‘Native Americans.’”
Olon Dotson, a professor of Architecture at Ball State University, said his great-great-great- grandmother, Betty Mantooth Teichmann Childers Starks, was born to an enslaved woman en route on the Trail of Tears. When Dotson found out about this hidden chapter of his family’s history, he felt “angered and betrayed,” and his anger was not only directed at Indians. “The feeling of betrayal,” he said, “was derived from the customary portrait of American history, as taught and understood, which paints the Five Civilized Tribes merely as victims of cruel and racist policies with little or no mention of the African American experience in the context. I was prepared to pounce on any African American who felt compelled to express pride in their Native American heritage at the expense of their African blood.”
Some descendants expressed no outrage, but simply wanted the experience of their ancestors to be remembered and respected. Olive Anderson, a descendant of slaves owned by the Cherokee Vann and Bean families, feels proud of her ancestors’ bravery, both during Removal and the Civil War, when her great great grandfather, Rufus Vann, fought with the 1st Kansas Colored Volunteers. “Let it be known,” she said, “that our ancestors walked, fought, loved and died to make this country what it is today.”
The Trail of Tears is an epochal moment not only in Cherokee history, but also in Black history. Descendants of slaves owned by Native people therefore claim this story as rightful heirs. Kenneth Cooper concluded in his remarks to me: “I don’t see how Cherokees...can separate the history of the tribe from the history of the Freedmen; they are irrevocably intertwined, before, during, and after the Trail of Tears.” The intertwined histories of Freedpeople and Cherokees, of African American history and Native American history, of all groups in this great and varied nation of ours, is a historical reality that may prove to be one of our greatest strengths.
The opinions expressed are solely those of Tiya Miles.
I was not surprised by the range of responses to this article: from the politically correct perspective of "let's forget the past, it's about who you are now as a person" to that of competing oppression, "my race suffered more than yours." What are Americans so afraid of regarding the topics of race? Are we afraid to confront the shameful parts of the past, willing to gloss over the truth to defend an image of certain groups as simply victims or perpetrators? Is this connected with the desire to preserve dominant history in order to preserve privilege, and therefore, the status quo? I found this article enlightening. We cannot make progress until we claim all parts of history–the good, the bad, and the ugly. Until we acknowledge, accept, and understand the past, we cannot make sense of our present. Until I took my intro to Native American studies class, I did not realize how much I did not know or thought I knew (but actually did not) about Native American histories. This article merely illustrates one example of narratives that are hidden in order to reinforce our dominant hierarchy of racial power and social values.
This is an enlightening article which seeks to shed light on a secret history, as Tiya Miles tends to do. The fact that a comparable number of black slaves died on the Trail of Tears as well as Natives is astounding to me. I understand what others have said, about the Trail of Tears uniting Cherokee today merely as a shared remnant of grievance, and I understand that African Americans today (especially those with ancestors from the ToT) could view it with anger towards the Cherokee people. However, because slavery was in large part a tool for assimilation used by whites, African Americans and Natives in a way were grouped together and the wellbeing of both peoples was devastated by the whites and Andrew Jackson.
Reading this article shows the importance of speaking about this part of Cherokee history and other Native American nations who owned slaves. Removal is a very important event that does unite Indians, as Miles states in this article but it is a fact that African-American slaves were present. I think that this does not diminish the importance or the gravity of removal, instead it includes the slaves who had to go through this. But before removal –slaves were already present in the Cherokee nation, I think that history needs to be known and it should not be a taboo subject. For people whose descendants were Afro-Cherokee, Freed Blacks, or slaves not recognized in this history, it is disrespectful.
In order to have a complete and cohesive history, we must possess all the facts. The truth is that African slaves were owned and abused by both Natives and white Americans during the 1700's. Natives also were oppressed and forced to assimilate to white culture by white colonialists who came to America. Both groups were subjugated, and both suffer discrimination today. Now that we have these facts, it is not the time to place one oppression as more "legitimate" or "meaningful" than another oppression. These hierarchies of suffering will not create complex understanding of racial interactions and how to improve them. It is true that the ownership of slaves by Natives complicates a blameless view of Native people and makes it more complicated to wrestle with the idea of racial hierarchy. However, it is important to accept these facts and place them in our historical context in order to learn about American race politics rather than trying to figure out where we can place blame.
The point Tiya Makes is one she always seems to go back to. You can't exclude any history of the United States without discussing the involvement of all groups involved. Making experiences personal and specific to a group has proved to undermine the historical facts of en event in its entirety. This also has to do with the exposure of the history. Native American studies is something that isn't taught in full detail until higher education classes and even then the works are biased based on the context and the perspective in which they are written. The stories of African Americans have been taught and talked about from different perspectives, usually from white Americans and white Europeans, but when spoken about and written about from the perspective of another ethnic minority, the historical facts are unknown to the general population. In these types of accounts there is some underlying race issues which Tiya addresses in "Ties that Bind" that are reflected in this article especially when it comes to Afro-Cherokees and their narrative as opposed to just Cherokee or white narrative. The question that comes up is how do you retell this history without focusing on a specific ethnic group but just as a collaborative important historical event?
There are great consequences when a part of history leaves out the tragedy of a particular group. For African-Americans, this has happened over and over again and it greatly affects how they are viewed in America, even today. Missing links in our history books allow us to enact barriers for African-Americans in a seemingly fair manner and alters their voices as mere excuses. With these particular statements, I am referencing another point in time where African-Americans are rarely mentioned though they were there. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, many European immigrants were able to take advantage of the growing industrial America and successfully make their way up the ladder. While many of them were not even considered white at that point in time, they were still able to eventually work their way towards whiteness. Additionally, the descendants of these European immigrants tend to enjoy higher socioeconomic positions than the descendants of African-American slaves that were freed before the bulk of the immigrants began to arrive. So the most popular pathological explanation arises: African-Americans were and are simply not as hardworking as the other racial groups that were able to ascend. However, the fact is that African-Americans were right alongside these European immigrants trying to compete for jobs and gain access to better neighborhoods, but U.S. legislation constantly left them out and labor laws frequently discriminated against them. The New Deal was hardly a deal for African-Americans. Thus, this want to separate African-Americans from the Trail of Tears furthers this kind of logic that inadvertently leaves out the contribution of African-Americans that were stepped on for the benefit of other groups of people. Tiya Miles rightly points out that many African-American lives were taken as a result of protecting Cherokee lives. How might the tragedy have been even worse if African-Americans had actually not been there? How might the fate of the European immigrants' descendants been different if there were no African-American slaves for them to step above in society?
One of the topics that comes up in Tiya's book, and also in this article, is the idea of the exclusion of African-American slaves within Cherokee society. I think it's not shocking that this particular part of the story is omitted just because their role within the Cherokee society was one of inclusion. While the Cherokee made allowances on relationships between interracial couples, it didn't signify that they had a defined accepted role within the society. One example she brings up in her book is the relationship between Doll and Shoe Boots; while they do have a relationship that transforms Doll from slave to contributing outsider (do to her kids fathered by Shoe Boots) it doesn't mean it excludes her from a role of being property.
However, I do think the untold narrative of the role of African-Americans and the mixed race descendants should be told. It would not only add another dimension to the Removal, but to both the history of the Cherokee and the African-Americans of the time. It definitely would be interesting to see the African-Americans' influence on the infrastructure of the Cherokee despite their marginalization and property delineation of their roles.
This article does not surprise me in the least. We already know that the representation of particular historical events, especially those in which the white population is portrayed in negative light, is not always the most accurate. As it is, true representation and portrayal of Native American history is hard to come by, often grazed and overlooked in many public learning settings. Of course there will be little or no mention of slaves within this context, as there is already little to no mention of Natives in the context of their own history. I think it's a little unfair to try to put the blame on Natives. Despite their treatment of slaves being much more civil than that of the white treatment of slaves, I'm sure they do not want to proudly declare that they too owned slaves (especially since they faced such poor treatment at the hands of whites), for they would seem slightly hypocritical otherwise. Slavery and descendants of slaves already have their own history and their own stories, so I don't think it's necessarily wrong for Cherokees to want to have their own stories as well. I think it's inherent that everyone has something personal to cling onto and stories to pass on to their children, and Cherokees want this to be *their* tale, and not hand it off to another culture to claim as their own.
"One member of the audience, a Cherokee instructor of Cherokee history, insisted that this was an historical event only for Cherokees, a story that rightfully belonged to them alone."
Although this is only one opinion, it indicates a larger desire within certain fields of academia to hoard history and make it belong to a particular group. Understanding American history from a Native perspective is invaluable, but it should still be open to the same scrutiny applied to Eurocentric versions of American history, which ignore significant peoples and misrepresent certain events. It is unsurprising to see some Natives and scholars of Native studies wishing to exclude Africans, African-Americans, and Afro-Cherokees from this narrative of forced removal. Doing so conveniently hides the ugly truth of Cherokee participation in the slave trade. Miles's work is crucial to understanding the ever-shifting roles of blacks in the trajectory of Native history - a history that is often discussed but hardly analyzed in relation to other ethnic groups.
While I agree that the narrative of black slaves and mixed Cherokees deserves rightful recognition and that its denial is unacceptable, I see danger in likening this narrative to that of the Middle Passage or the Northern Migration. Just in terms of the sheer number of people who were affected by the horrors of the latter two, I think likening the Black experience during the Trail of Tears to the other two migrations would detract from the gravity of those migrations and would serve as a point of unneccesary contention for those who may have been affected by the latter two migrations (especially the Northern migration). I am in no way trying to detract from the seriousness of the Black experience on the Trail of Tears, it would just seem more beneficial to explore knowledge on the subject for the sake of that knowledge and out of respect for those who suffered.
This article wasn't shocking to me. Time and time again people have had problems with demarcating the existence of more than one group within tragedies. Think of the Holocaust and how leading scholars in Israel lead for calls of not calling other genocides, genocides in a fear that it will detract from the legitimacy of their claims. It's sad, but true and somewhat expected.
In my opinion, the notion of the Trail of Tears being understood by Americans solely as a part of the narrative of the Cherokee is not surprising. I think that often times, groups that faced severe discrimination or suffering in the United States are remembered in a romanticized way. Whether recounting the tribulations of the Irish, Blacks, or Native Americans, a kind of nobleness and bravery is attached to their incredible stories of surviving incredibly difficult times. Although I think that this sort of a remembrance is understandable and in many ways appropriate and accurate, the fact that slaves made the Trail of Tears with their Cherokee owners certainly seems to mar the connotation of the Cherokee removal in the American conscious.
i think that everyone holds some part of their cultural or ethnic heritage as some intricate part of who they are a s a person and how the would define themsleves as an individual. blacks and native americans have had very distinctive histories filled with numerous hardships that are hard matched by many other ethnicities and races in america. thats not to say that one hardship is greater than the other, it isn't fair to get into the "who had it worse" sort of game. but the reason i think people can get so heated over an article like this is that an event like the trail of tears is a hardship that, in public opinion, was something unique to the cherokee people. to think of slaves and mixed slave-cherokee people undergoing this hardship together takes away from its uniqueness to the cherokee people and turns it into both a black and native american hardship. now that it was both native americans and slaves being oppressed through the trail of tears, if i where a descendent of the cherokee people, i can no longer say that "these were the trials and tribulations my people had to overcome and because of it, i am a proud member of the distinct cherokee race" because my ancestors were not the only ones to overcome it, which makes my cherokee-ness less unique.
Many of the comments that have been posted seem to attempt to defend the hardships of either Black's or Native American's. Why is it that a race would hope to be considered unfairly treated? In my opinion those who try and deny history do so in order to preserve their image as the 'good guys'. As it stands both Native Americans and African Americans have faced hundreds of years of hardships brought on by the Whites. This is a historical fact that cannot be denied. What Miles brings up is the less understood history of the slave-holding Native Americans. The fact that Native Americans held slaves does not make the trail of tears any less of a tragedy. Miles does not write this article nor her book with the goal of crowning the black race as the most oppressed. She merely seeks to enlighten a under taught part of history. Any argument over which race had it worse are irrelevant and misguided.
Having read all your comments I feel that many of you believe that Miles tries to present Cherokees as oppressors and cruel slaveholders. Having read her book "Ties that Bind" I know that Miles tried to be as objective as possible by giving a lot of information about Cherokees and how and why slavery was introduced into their nation. Her way of gathering all these information to present us a story that mirrors the actual happening adds to her objectivity. Histoy about Cherokees used to be written by educated, mixed-white people who were intellectual and political leaders. When looking at history we need to become aware of where this history comes from (who wrote it, where, when and for what purpose). Although history can never be fully objective (historians don't only write history, they make history) Miles tres to give us an insight into the Cherokee community that also consisted of enslaved people.
I think it should be made clear this isn’t just a victim story; it is a clarification of an already downplayed and embarrassing historical event. Obviously Native Americans suffered terribly along the Trail of Tears, but Ms. Miles is also working to show that others felt that hardship as well. This also sort of disrupts narratives traditionally associated with Native Americans as solely the victims of white man’s incursions and injustices. This article shows that Native Americans also owned slaves, and that often this fact is minimized when histories are written, something Ms. Miles mentions when referencing Terry Ligon. History should primarily be and is ultimately a search for truth, so to read some of these other posts concerning blacks, welfare, Native victimization etc./whatever is a little disheartening. This article is not political nor a co-option by blacks of a Native American story; it is simply a truthful representation of a previously dwarfed or unknown fact, that many black slaves suffered along the Trail of Tears just as their Native American masters did.
This article was well thought out and extremely coherent. Miles informs us of the knowledge she gathered through research in an open-minded, completely unbiased manner. She is not trying to manipulate the facts to take the focus off of Cherokees who suffered during the Trail of Tears, but is instead trying to reveal a truth so powerful that it could cause even more recognition–and understanding–of the event. The relationship between blacks slaves and Native Americans is a subject that remains murky at best, and by shedding light on the details of the Trail of Tears, Miles helps interest us in getting more information on the topic. The bigoted and insensitive remarks that follow this article are a clue that we need even more information to enlighten those who are plagued by such insensitive thoughts.
I don't know whether to be amused or horrified (maybe both?) by the ignorance evident in many of these comments. In writing on this subject, I think that Miles is attempting to enrich our understanding of what we already know to be an embattled national history. She deepens our knowledge of the way racial and ethnic dynamics have impacted how we see ourselves in the context of our nation. Yes, this does mean complicating the way we grasp the relationship between the historic oppressors and the historically oppressed–and this is not necessarily a dichotomy. If we are to afford the histories and present realities of both American Indians and African Americans the respect they deserve, we have to acknowledge their agency. As Miles states in this article, the complexity of the American story is also what makes it exceptional.
It seems like some of the people who are upset about this article feel that way because this changes their perceptions of Indians or supposedly "detracts" from the hardships that Indians faced. I believe it is important to challenge this expectation of Indians as the eternal victim. It's okay to feel bad, because the treatment of American Indians was terrible; I do not believe that we should allow guilt to cloud our ability to see mistakes or flaws that Indians have made, though.
And another thing–this isn't just an article filled with complaints or accusations. Nor is it a rehash of "the same old stuff" as many people have implied in their comments. It is an important addition to the the portrait of American Indians (if there is only one to speak of, that is) that creates another layer in our understanding of interactions between the inhabitants of America.
The playing field was made level 2000 years ago on Calvary and all i have to do is pray for what i want and there is not a force on earth or in hell that can stop it. PLEASE ENOUGH with the victim s h y t enough already why you look backwards the world is looking at you in the rearview mirror and you starting to look smaller and smaller as it goes forward until you cant be seen anymore. In other words you become insignificant with all the the rhetoric and it becomes ear numbing because it's the same old, old, old arguement.
You apparently are a victim because you are so angry and frustrated that you the though of embracing your history in this country troubles you. It is okay to analyze every form of Black history both the turmoils that we've experienced as well as the successes. Every nation has history and every culture and people look back to the past to learn about humanity and culture. This is critical, why should black people deny their history and just engage the future when every other race reminiscence upon theirs?
those who deny history are doomed to repeat it.
Those who don't learn from history are doomed to repeat it.
There is a huge difference between knowing a cultures past
to avoid issues in the future, to overblown, chronic replay,
for the sake of victimizing an entire race of people today.
There is absolutely no benifit in dredging up this nation's
horrible past over & over except to hurt a certin group of
people of today and gain favour in numerous fourms.
By no means am I saying that there aren't evil people that
walk amongst us now. However, the vast majority of people
I have met in my numerous decades on this planet, are
decent. To bring up what dead people did to dead people
hundreds of years back, over & over, for the sake of causing
unrest amongst the masses is B.S.! And this is axactly what
this type of action does to people. It stirs groups up, and ceases
be of any real benifit to anybody except those seeking revenge,
or some form of compensation for something they had no part in.
Knowing your history is fantastic but using it as a weapon, an
excuse for violence or leverege to gain something that is not
owed to you wrong.
Here is a saying you might know. Two wrongs don't make a right.
The Texan president Miraebu Bonuparte Lamar disliked the Cherokee and Natives in general. He made the decision to escort them out of Northern Texas. Chief Robert Bowles, the descendent of a Scottish man and native mix, was eighty three years old.
Lamar didn't trust any of them, and since the Mexicans were trying to get them to align to push out the Texan government and Mexico would reclaim the Texas.
The Texan- cherokee war took place in July 16th and 17th in 1839, and the rest of the Natives flad, Chief Bowles was mutilated by a Texan soldier, and he even kept some of his scalp.
To be fair to Lamar, there was clearly a national security risk to Texas by some of the Natives, but not all. President Houston was the only Texan to be fair to the Natives, not blind, but opening in friendship. But Texans just didn't like them, and neither did the government.
Wow... why do people get so inflamed? This article is not trying to say everything about American history, nor is it trying to say everything about the Trail of Tears. Every single thing written on the internet is not meant to evoke your small-minded opinions, so stop responding as such. This is simply presenting some information long forgotten or perhaps never known to average Americans, and informing us that we've been mistaken by providing actual evidence. See, intelligent people who have thoughts that take longer than a knee-jerk's length to form like to incorporate this kind of information into their overall understanding of the world, so please stand by while reasonable people learn something from this brilliant article.
Why isnt there a Native American holiday?! My goal in life is to make sure there is one.
there is, its called Independence Day if they consider themselves citizens of the United States. however, nothing prevents the various tribes setting up whatever kind of holiday they want on their reservations if they choose not to be recognized at citizens of the U.S..
URGENT – Please read more about VERIZON. Things they don't want the public to know! I was tormented by racial comments that were ignored, then racially discriminated against and wrongfully terminated for making complaints about the racial injustice.
Please visit my Blog Page to see what Verizon did to my family. What they have done to my family, and continue to do is horrific. Today they still will not accept responsibility. So I will not stop this FIGHT for JUSTICE! It has been 8 years and I refuse to give up, but I need your help to spread my message.
You can read my stories about what VERIZON did to my family by GOOGLING:
• “Verizon Raped My Family – Cover Letter”
• “Verizon Raped My Family – Press Release”
• “Verizon Raped My Family – Requesting Criminal Punishment”
From there you can access the other letters through the recent post.
I am a man who has stood up against racism, discrimination, bullying, harassment, hostile environment, belittlement, threats, and retaliation, all while working for Verizon Communications, as they conspired to terminate me.
I am a man who is trying to hold his family together while in the process of trying to fight for my rights to be heard. I am a man who has brought up his family on morals, discipline, character, hard work, dedication and conviction to believe that good things happen to good people. I am a man who could not be more proud of my family for all their trust and faith in my conviction. I am man who is a proud servant in my community and deserves to be heard, as I am begging for
Neal W. Dias
Pretty soon now we'll find out that blacks were victims of the Holocaust as well ...... keep rewriting history and they'll be the only race to ever suffer.
People who have been thru something need it to be recognized. It's fair enough. Be careful what you say. I'm writing this so that when you get arrested by the cops for some b**ls**t thing you didnt do (something that happens occasionally to folks who aren't Upper Middle Class) and things go downhill from there for the next year cos no-one believes your excuses (quite a common story) or something like that, you'll recall that you dogged on African Americans for trying to let the world know they were in with the Cherokees on the Trail of Tears. Just saying. What goes around, comes around, my bitter friend.
Actually, if you read history, it is a well known fact that Hitler killed hundreds of thousands of "black" people. The world will always have hate and people love using the one thing that truly cannot be changed, physical appearance.
They were, in fact. This is just one example.
Thank you so much for this article. I certainly knew about the Trial of Tears, and that there were Native Americans who owned slaves, but had no idea that there were a lot of Blacks who also were on the Trail of Tears. btw – I speak to HIgh School classes about the Holocaust (my parents are Holocaust Survivors) and I always emphasize all groups who were victims. When I talk about the Blacks who were in Concentration camps and Labor camps, I always get shocked reactions, especially from Black students. FYI, at least 500 Blacks died at Dachau. Others were in horrific forced labor camps, and many died there. History is history, and we should be exposed to ALL of it.
I was always curious as to the whereabouts of the Black people during those times of the Holocaust. Surely, Nazis did not leave Black people in peace. Please share with me where I can get direct access to this knowledge, preferably in its original written form. Much appreciated.
Im white, educated and proudly southern. I have an African immigrant neighbor in a small 3000 person town in rural Texas. He is a great guy-we believe in many common issues and he and his family have offerred to look out for my family while I work night shift or called out on an emergency-I m a cop. I m a liberal by no means-I try to see folks as individuals and not groups. Get rid of hyphenated Americans.Look for things we can all agree with-good schools, lower taxes helping our fellow Americans before foreigners. Incorporate BHM in schools daily with others ethnic groups as a part of the total American history story-warts and all. Content of character, values and the golden rule works for me.
You my friend sound like a TRUE American, the type of Americans I would love to meet when travelling in the US.
Fortunately, the Obama Administration was all over this issue and reversed it. It was done quietly.
I came to this whole exchange kind of late and haven't read all the comments, but...
The last I heard, most accepted scientific evidence to date indicates that modern humans of all types originated on the African continent. Which sort of makes all this a family feud, huh?
I dont feel that the author was trying to diminish native american suffering in relation to african american suffering. I'm black, and I think this is just an informative article. I'm 25, and from mississppi and as a little girl i remember the 1st time that I saw that i was of native american descent. I was 6 and was taken over my grandmother's house to meet great aunts that had never seen me. they were twins in their early 90's and were clearly of native american descent. and they spoke a language to each other that i had never heard mixed with english. to this day i have never heard anything similar to the language they were speaking. and now i'm 25 and searching for a story to go along with those two ladies that i only saw 3 times before they passed. my grandmother was able to give me every name and birthdate she could remember before she passed. and now my father and i are try to put 'OUR' puzzle together. i dont feel the need to be able to check native american on a census, i just wanna know my family's past
We have a similar history in our family. We are all four races. One grandmother looks mostly native american and I people tell me it is clear I have Native American blood. National Geographic as a program for $99 that tells you your racial ancestry based on genetics. It is very cool. Best Wishes
The most significant contribution of this piece is that the author illuminates part of history that is rarely taught and/or understood. Remember that he who doesn't know history is destined to repeat it. I have been enlightened and am proud that someone did this research.
Ever heard of the ' THE TRAIL OF BEERS'?
VERY INFORMATIVE ARTICLE. THIS IS A PART OF HISTORY THAT HAS DEFINITELY NOT BEEN SPOKEN OF. I LOVE IT!! IT IS ALWAYS GREAT TO UNCOVER MORE OF OUR RICH HISTORY! I AM SURE THAT BLACK PEOPLE DURING THESES ERAS WERE VERY STRONG!! IT IS A SHAME TO SEE HOW WE AS A PEOPLE HAVE ALLOWED THE SIMPLE AND MEANINGLESS THINGS WEAKEN US AND PULL US APART!! THANK GOD FOR THE STRENGTH OF OR OUR ANCESTORS!! MAY GOD ALWAYS GIVE US THE MORAL STRENGTH TO MAKE THEM PROUD OF US AND MAKE US PROUD OF OURSELVES!!!
I was surprised by the vitriol expressed in some of these posts. I read the article and simply found it interesting. I did not put near the emotion into it that many of those compelled to write comments. The article did not attempt to diminish the pain and suffer of Native Americans. The author’s only aim was to illustrate a more accurate picture history. I really don’t think the author objective was to falsely insert Black Folks into this tragedy; or to earn pity in the minds of others; or to make some feel guilty.
What is to be gained?
I understand the people on the extremes of an issue are generally the most likely to post comments. That said…I found some of the comment offensive and non value adding. Remember, sometimes silence is better than speaking.
Read the article for what it states. Try not to add your own narrative.
NOW WHERE ARE THE WHITE SLAVES?
They were never property and were set free, after their debt was paid.
While Breyle is clearly just a racist, your comment is not entirely correct. Please read "Lost German Slave Girl" by the law historian John Bailey. Many slaves had less than one Black grandparent and thus were White by today's race construction. These slaves were worth less (and cost less) since they would be able to hide better when they run away. It is all detailed in the book, very fascinating, cause it shows again how we construct race by excluding and including people in the histories we tell (rather than just telling what we can prove historically)- just like the exclusion of the Freedmen from Cherokee history.
As an AA, this is quite interesting and should be a fascinating read, thank you. As I have always felt, hiding history will do us no good. As we all can see, it makes us resentful and impetuous with presumptuous denial of facts. What a day it will be when all is discussed. I had an Asian American professor at NC State that did a great job of opening my eyes, especially coming from someone who had nothing to gain or lose. LOVE HISTORY!!!!!
The point is this happened many years ago...I did not own slaves and not one person i know has ever served as a slave, so why should you get reperations or be treated like your above me. This whole Issue has been blown out of proportion. Yes There were slaves brought from all over the world, however would thier lives be so much better starving to death. Another fact that has been brought into the equation is the rape that transpired during this time. Rape was not as condemed during this time (i am in no way agreeing with it) but now it is a crime and it still happens daily. On top of that rape happened often in africa. I do not consider myself racist but i do believe in what i know and that is to treat people with respect until they prove to me they are not worthy of my respect.
The whole "this happened many years ago, so let's get over it" thing ignores the plain and simple fact that the legacy of slavery, or the genocide of the Indian peoples of the Americas, or the Holocaust, and other injustices which were perpetrated on a mass scale, are carried on down through generations, and are still being felt in our own time, whether we like it or not. Let's remember that Jim Crow, which was the direct result of slavery, is not ancient history but is actually living memory. To simply say "it was a long time ago, so let's forget it" is to dishonor those who suffered, and to ignore the duty we have right now to mitigate the legacy of such past evils right now.
And, by the way, no slave owner was ever, ever persecuted for rape, as slave women were not persons under the law – whereas rape of any kind is a felony today, so equating what happened then to what happens now is like comparing apples and oranges. I won't even get into the ludicrous nature of the rest of your comments.
this was not a comment of "this happened many years ago" So forget about it!!!!! This was merely a statement of it did happen many years ago so lets learn from it and move on to a better future....The DEEP cuts of not only slavery but also mentioned the holocaust which was an attempt to EXTERMINATE a religion will never be able to heal if we keep putting our fingers in it and agitating it. I do believe if you dont remember the past it will repeat itself. I am not suprised to your quick tongue lashing at my post as it seems of your nature to try to degrade someone else so quick as opposed to view an opinion as an OPINION...Thank you for your input and i will consider your words and try to see why you were so quick to anger at my words. Prime example of hatred in this world.
and i was not comparing the rape of yesterday to the rape today....I cannot change what happend yesterday. I can Try to prevent it from happening today(which is the reason i said it still happens today). There are many things that happened yesterday that i do not agree with, however WE do have the power to change what is yet to come.
This is a response to nonsensicalthinkingoutloud. I would argue that in this day and age you would be hardpressed to find anyone who owns slaves in this country even though some of you would like nothing better than the return of the old status quo of 150 years ago. Additionally I find it amusing that so many whites live in the fantasy world of mistaken belief that all of their ancestors where antebellum landowning genttry when in fact slaves even though they were underfed ate better than poor whites. The world is falling apart around us yet the racist practice their evil craft rather than work with other ethnic groups and religions to save this planet for the survival of their mutual progeny..
I agree that i would be hard pressed....Really? For you to say that most "Whites" would like to go back to the mentality of thier ancestors is ill stated. Im sorry that you believe this and am shocked that you would express this. This sounds racist to me and very stereotypicall.
@thinkoutloud, he, "M," said some and you have generalized and took out of context his words with "most." From someone who has lived in the deep south and watches the Republican debates constantly, it is OBVIOUS, that "SOME" would love for slavery to exist again. As Michelle Bachman said, "Blacks were better off as slaves." Rick Perry needs to target practice in his acres of forest called, "N*ggerHead." Rick Santorum, "I don't want to make black people's lives better by giving them somebodyelse's money." Newt Gingrich, "Black kids can learn how to work by giving them janitorial jobs at school." and lastly, Mitt Romney, a devout Mormon, whose religion up until 1976, said that blacks were the "lost race" of Cain and deserved their cursed punishment in life.
I AM INDEPEDENT, there is alot about Obama that does not make me want to vote for him again, HOWEVER, until the Republican party and the people that are in it show some different ideologies other than "hating" the black race, they will not get my vote and I will continue to acknowledge that "SOME" white people want nothing more than for me to be the "animal" slave they view in their own "hate-filled" reflection.
I agree with most of your thoughts. I do not believe black people are non-whites in general feel they should rise above someone white. Yes there are some and perhaps too many dogmatic people who cannot manage their thoughts and reality when it comes to topics of race. Unfortuantely, there is still lots of racism and ugly sterotyping amongst all the races. I wish it would go away, it causes lots of damage.
Black history is American history, what idiot decided we needed a special month for just black history.
The same idiot who realized that if NOT for Black History Month.....Black History and the contributions of Blacks in American History would be......ignored.
OK.....next stupid question.......
Thank you, Retired Army. Hear hear!
Really? What contributions?
Steve......your response is EXACTLY why there needs to be a BHM. Just the fact that you would ask such a question validates its need.
Now.....pay better attention to what's being 'honored' during BHM so that you won't have to ask such a silly question in the future.
I am of Native American Decent. Africans, Whites, and every other race were captured and as you call it enslaved into our tribes. The difference is Native Americans then obsorved their "prisoners" into our tribes giving them the same rights. Africans may have been enslaved and a few may have been on the Trail of Tears. That does not change the fact that my people were exterminated and considered of no use (even as slaves to whites.) while your Africans joined the white calvery and helped to exterminate us. Guess you failed to teach that in your history least it make Africans look bad. Get over your race everything and every event is not about your past.
I agree. As terrible as the whites (and I am white) were to the blacks, the treatment of Native Americans was worse. Why do I say this? Because blacks were necessary for the economic success of some of the wealthy, whereas for the whites to occupy the continent it was advantageous to kill the Indians. And they did.
Dave.....don't get bent. WHAT YOU IGNORE here is that in the 18th and 19th centuries, literally thousands of Native American scouts were in the employ of the U.S. Government.....working with U.S. Military units.....helping them to remove native tribes from their lands, waging war against and killing other native people/tribes.
So no.....it wasn't just the Whites that killed Native Americans.....and there weren't hordes of freedmen aiding Whites in the Killing of Native Americans; other Native americans had a hand.....and significant hand.....in the slaughter.
It's all about programming through oppression; this is a very powerful tool.
So in conclusion, every race crapped on other races and no one has a claim to be on the bottom...get over all this stuff and try to better your economic position by bettering yourself! With all the govt programs for education that are provided for MINORITIES you should not have a problem....
No it is not about just Black people the reason for history is record what was and his but attempt to tell the whole story because to leave gaps in the narrative is an invitation for revisonism.
Please understand that this story is, in no way, trying to right the many wrongs that occurred in history.
The story of Cherokee and Black relations is long, complicated, and cannot be simply put. Saying that all Cherokees were good to their slaves or nice slave owners is both ironic and not entirely true. It is very difficult to imagine a situation in which another person is owned as being good in any way. We can comment on the quality of life of African Americans enslaved by Cherokees, which has been recorded in numerous accounts to be better than that of African Americans owned by Whites; however we must remember that there are a wide variety of accounts and untellable cruelties carried out by both parties on their slaves.
The matter of citizenship that you bring up is quite interesting. Slaves owned by Cherokees were not considered citizens at any point in their slavery and were forced to work for their masters without pay. Black slaves could gain citizenship only if they were freed in Cherokee Country West or, in the case of the Shoeboots family, applied for and were granted citizenship. This process is not simple, however. In this particular family although their ancestry could be traced back to a prominent Cherokee figure and his slave Doll, out of a group of five siblings only two were granted citizenship. And even if citizenship was granted, it took years to build the relationships required to feel like part of the Cherokee community.
I hope this helps clarify some confusion.
So silly to have a black history month. Morgan Freeman said "when is white history month", "well I don't see why their is a black history month", "that is what breed resentment, special treatment for certain races."
So do black people really want equality and be treated like whites, or do they want this special treatment liberals are so fond of that Morgan Freeman speaks of breeding resentment.
Liberals are soooooo DUMB
Yeah.....sooooooooooo silly to have a Black History Month.
And there's NOTHING you can do about it except to moan and complain. very good......I'm happy you have the right to moan and complain.....about just about everything that ails you.
Hope you fell better soon.
I'm sure blacks would trade black history month for equality in a heartbeat.
History is important as they are the stories of all people(s) by people who lived it, gave their lives-in many cases, and contributed to our NOW in many ways. Also, it is important to learn the mistakes of our pasts as well as the lessons from those mistakes, so we don't make the same mistakes again. To the racists who write here, get over yourselves because not one of you is better than anyone else on this planet earth.
Morgan Freeman proves the saying this time that "A fool can be thought intelligent until he opens his mouth."
Get over it.....I could tell you what it is like to be white in America and hated for it.
Oh poor oppressed you.
Oh the sad plight that white people have in America. But then again maybe you are a seer. Who knows what the latino majority will have in store for you in 3 years.
You are right. In a few years, under the NEW LATIN leadership, we will be MEXICO NORTH...sure makes us white folks happy to look forward to this. I guess all those ILLEGALS from Mexico will now be the leading politicians here in Mexico North and the poor Guatamalans will be forced to go home....the more things change the more they remain the same
There is no shortage of black people at CNN who want to write only about black peoples history. I think their are about 15 stories every day about current black problems or historical black problems. They can't even let the Native Americans have their own problems, they must be part of that too. CNN must have 10 black people who just write about black problems. This isn't Central News Network, it's BNN, Black News Network. CNN is obsessed with black peoples problems, not so much other minorities.
It doesn't feel good, does it? Bias creates negative emotions and resentment.
Andy......If you have such deep issues with CNN......why are you here?
Why don't you just Slither back over to FauxNoise to get your daily dose of satisfaction?
And BTW.....CNN has NEVER stood for "Central" News Network, you uninformed dolt.
I see you missed the point. I think it is great the tie between black americans and Native Americans are highlighted in this article. There are lots of black people who are part Native American and why shouldn't they understand their history, it is cool understanding ones background.
@ExConSrvTv and others like him or her – To all those who are saying that the Cherokee deserved this because they weren't educated, or what have you, you need to learn your history. The Cherokee people were a sovereign nation in the American southeast. they had treaties with the United States government. They were settled, had become Christian long before the the expulsion (which, to the 19th Century mind was a key component of being "civilized") and were propagating European style education for their young people. The wealthy white landowners of the southeast coveted their lands, however. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokees against their expulsion by Georgians and those members of other states who wanted their land, by President Jackson refused to enforced the ruling, saying that the Chief Justice could enforce it himself – and advised the southerners to light a fire underneath the Cherokees to let them go. This had nothing to do with pacifying a hostile people, nor did it have to do with an uneducated people being made to face the consequences of their ignorance (one of the key Cherokee leaders was actually university educated and married to a woman of European descent). It was all about the rich and powerful being greedy, and, fueled by racism, that greed getting the better of justice and the rule of law.
Every race has been enslaved and mistreated at one time or another. This is how life works for the weak and uneducated. It's not my fault that my ancestors or someone else's were in that situation and I'm not going to feel sorry for them that they allowed it to happen. Embrace education or it will happen again.
Too many earthquakes beneath the sea of our culture (not just slavery) has produced a massive wave in black society that has impacted the entire nation. We've all seen the destruction left behind when the waters subside; it's unfortunate that culture has memory, and traditions are handed down (even those of despair, hatred, violence, hopelessness and resentment). Barriers that have been burned into the consciousness of a culture are hard to remove. Children raised in an abusive home need a lot of love to recover; for blacks, America has been an abusive home and love is in extremely short supply. Since love cannot be legislated, laws will never change the heart of a man.
The first Black who were made slave here in America were the Aboriginal people from East and west Africa. They came here hundered of thousand of years ago on there own ..even before all other races exited on this planet. Matter of fact when we get to other planets you will find Black people up there as well.
Geez, even the Cherokee's can't have their trail of tears...
Who said they can't? Why are they denying that the slaves they owned shared that history?
You miss the point. There were over 50,000 Native Americans enslaved. Do you count them when you talk of slavery? The very first slaves in America were lifelong endentured servants from Britain. Do you ever consider them? Of course the biggest problem with this whole story is the fact that since 1803 Native Americans and Free Blacks were not legally allowed to own slaves.
February is almost over :)
Only those who really don't care about history would choose to denigrate the study of any part of it. And those who don't care about history (or are rewriting it to suit their own political agendae – I'm lookiing at you, TEA Partiers and Glenn Beck) are the same ones who are leading us into a new dark age.
A few facts: Yes, Africans were captured by other Africans and sold into slavery. Africa at that time was simply too dangerous for slave traders to venture inland. One million Africans were brought by Europeans into the Americas as slaves. Ten million Africans were brought by Muslims into the Middle East as slaves, and they continued this practice long past our Civil War. The United States outlawed the importation of slaves less than 30 years after declaring our independence and our navy vigoursly went after slave traders.
Not all White Americans are unfeeling about the pass atrocities of people of color. I was fortunate in doing a genealogy historical research and found some amazing things that brought tears to the Whites and Native Americans I shared it with; unlike when I shared it with Black Americans who had no emotions, but showed hatred and jealousy. In order to move forward, the Black diaspora happened, its time to stop the hatred, forgive, educate, and move on. We are the better for it, and can do great things with the gifts we possess we can make a difference for the greater good in our community, society, and the WORLD.
I absolutely agree!!!!!!!!!!
what a grand mix we are and all the better for it!
please come the day we simply find our differences interesting
and nothing more
I'm not christian but I've always seen power in the phrase
forgive my trespasses and I forgive those who trespass against me
true freedom lies in forgiveness
Its nice to hear those words. Thank you lance corporal..forgiveness is the heaviest of all swords to wield..
If the Black Africans had not sold there own people then you would have nothing to talk about. I feel bad that Blacks must remain in the US against there will. There must be some way that you can go home (back to Africa) to find happiness.
History is so important, from the begining of time there have been slaves and just about every culture and nationality has experience the pain from it. All , any of us can do is to simply respect it, learn from it and appreciate the fact that it is history.
@qwedie – I like it here just fine. I learned to make lemonade with lemons. Not all black people feel the way you think...
It is so clear that "qwedie" have some issues that will take time for him/or she to sort out.
we do know about african collusion in the enslaving of their brothers BUT that is only what started it, when it turned in to the massive industry feeding the southern USA it was no longer a "black owned" business.... BUT
what problem do you have with telling historical stories?? do you like stories about william wallace, rob roy etc?? they make movies about those........ don't ya think you could allow other groups to explore their past? maybe even find it interesting?? certainly nothing to complain about
Qwedie..this is our home...Forever......
Wow, your are nothing short of comical , lol. LMAO!!!!!!!!!!!!! You are exactly the "type" that Rick Santorum is looking for, unfortunate that you will never get any further along than you are as you are so consumed with race that you show that you are ill equipped to fight the war on class. Elitist politicians use socially and politically daft and uneducated people like you to push their agendas. However, I could not possibly expect you to even understand this comment as you appear to intellectually challenged on every level. LMAO!!!!!!!!!!!
Qwedie, just a hint: it's "their", not "there". Don't let your misuse of language betray your ignorance; your opinions do that for themselves.
we all make spelling and syntax errors- it usually has nothing to do with intelligence or education.
Ninty percent of all black slave did not did not come from Africa those black of the Aboriginal inhabitian of all America both North and south America when the continet split away from Africa so stop saying most of them came by way of slavery they were here all the time. Bless.
Dear fellow white people,
Stop denying white privilege!
Dear Concerned Cora,
I have no guilt for being white. Why do you think I should?
An Unrepentant White Male
Where did she say you should feel guilty?
What she said is a FACT and one that ought to be acknowledged.
If all white go back to theirs ancient homeland we would not have this talking point ..notice didnot say go back to Europe that were black land go to the point go back to Northern China where you all came from. .if the Chinese have you all.
Stop spreading myths because everything is about money not color of skin.
I do not deny white privilege, I embrace it.
My earliest memory is of living in a Ford Pinto. My family had to rely on food stamps and welfare for years. Most of my clothes were donated or hand me downs. My mother put herself through school and became a paralegal. She was able to lift herself up out of poverty and become respectable. I myself now work for a major bank. I’m by no means rich but with a little responsibly I was able to move beyond living paycheck to paycheck. Where is this privilege you speak of?
And so you know there are more black people in my office than white.
Wow! To Black Mystery Month: there is an adage my Father would say which applies double for you: "It is better to remain silent and be thought a fool, than to open your mouth and remove all doubt". Next time you think you have something to add, just let it go.
Wow! To Black Mystery Month: there is an adage my Father would say which applies double for you: "It is better to remain silent and be thought a fool, than to open your moth and remove all doubt". Next time you think you have something to add, just let it go.
But if it weren't for fools, how would we distinguish the wise?
Debbie, while that adage may be relevant in other settings, I don’t think it applies to this article. Miles is not trying to detract from the wrongs that the Cherokee’s suffered during the Trial of Tears. Rather, her goal is to add to the public’s perception about the Trial of Tears. Her article is based on fact. The Cherokees did in fact own slaves, and those slaves did endure the Trial of Tears. While this doesn’t coincide with the preexisting idea many people have that the Cherokees were purely victims, it is better to acknowledge that some Cherokees were slaveholders than deny the truth. In my opinion, presenting a skewed version of history is more offensive than hiding a less-than-pleasant fact. In this case, it is certainly better for Miles “to open her mouth” and remove the public’s misconceptions than remain silent and let the public be fooled.
Save the history for the History Channel and try reporting the news CNN.
I'm sorry, is someone forcing you to read this article?
This has nothing to do with the news and little to do with history. It’s another creative rewrite to make a very small aspect into something greater by riding on someone else’s tragedy. But that’s just par for the course for this topic.
It's interesting to know this. But I was disturbed by the idea of rallying against Native Americans over it. They've suffered much and still do really.
Doesn't make it right for them to deny someone else their history.
Tell that to my friend living on a California ‘reservation’ that has its own casino and the ‘tribe’ living in a neighborhood where every single family has at least a modern two story house. HE flies US out for visits. Suffering my freckled backside.
It seems each person holds their own experiences, or those of "their people" in the highest regard. They carry the most weight. They're the most meaningful. Which is the same thing as saying the rest aren't as important. Which is crap. Instead of focusing on the past, why not on the future? That applies to race, creed, color, religion, politics, panty size – *everything*. Let it go. Quit managing what was and start working on what will be.
Just another in a very long list of reasons why I can't stand people.
And we can't stand people like you. Our history is important and shows us how we got to where we are and how to avoid the same mistakes. There is nothing in this article that wreaks of self pitty yet you seem to label it as such. "The end is the beginning is the end".
It amazes me to here the quips about being "educated" and "getting the facts straight" . What would the basis of that endeavor be ? The white European version of written history shoveled at stundents in this country that is for the most part not thiers despite the rape pillage and conquering of it by their ancestors. You whites dont get it, you descended from one of the most atrocious, vicious self depricating societys in history. Im speaking of the one you desended from before you arrived here. Maybee you should educate yourself about the society you descended from prior to coming to this country were you are so proud of your generally fictionalized history. You spit on african americans and my people
Oh brother .. talk about giving it a rest.
You've got some real issues to work on, don't you. Every race has good people and bad people. Get over it! Make it as best you can for others, and move on!
The operative phrase here is "conquering of it by their ancestors". You were conquered, after which the land was no longer yours. You own only those things you can defend against anyone who would take them from you. No other definition of ownership makes any sense in a fundamentally violent world.
What you don’t seem to get is that ALL races share the negative sides of humanity. Blacks and Indians owned slaved. They warred with each other like everyone else. The difference was and is: white societies are more successful.
Get over it.
why will NOTHING POST?
There were black slaves who were the property of Native Americans? Okay thanks for writing this I didn't know. However, I find it pretty annoying that more emphasis, in all aspects of society, is placed on the subjugation of blacks in America- in the past and the present. Yes, slavery was bad, but for god sakes it also happened everywhere else in the world! Including Africa! I feel that Native Americans deserve more of a voice and more focus because when this "great" nation was built by stealing the land of Native Americans (I don't care who was running away from religious persecution), committing atrocious acts of genocide, wiping out entire native cultures, and forcing the NATIVE peoples to move from the fertile land that they have lived on for generations in exchange for living on infertile reservations. Because of America, through slavery and the many other hardships people of color have had to endure a new African-American culture was born, but because of America the Native American cultures were destroyed.
Are you saying that blacks have somehow benefitted from slavery and that all our troubles ended the day the Emancipation proclamation was signed? Do you really believe the foolishness you just said? Wow
Any of you making excuses for the way you treat blacks and never giving them any respect should be ashamed. I treat them with the same respect that I give my family and my mom. No more, no less and they appreciate it. They don't expect perfection, just sincere respect with a smile. Why is it so hard for some of you whites to figure this out? Get over yourself cuz you're not the center of the world and start treating them right.
I respect individuals, but I have no respect for a culture that is constantly complaining about past wrongs and using it as an excuse to accomplish shiiit in their present lives. The only thing that this article will produce is a greater incentive for black people to continue sitting on their assses and whining about how badly black people were treated. No other group of people in this country contributes less than African Americans.
Who cares what you think really... Your thoughts are not facts, just racist rubbish. I know plenty of lazy people, and guess what; they are not Black...
I couldnt agree with more,im tired of it to.
BUT YET TIM YOUR PPL ARE FIRST IN LINE FOR HAND OUTS...WHY DONT YOU TELL US YOUR HISTORY...IS IT KKK?
Then you must really hate the jews.
To the apalled white guy, stay white because aint nothing. Gonna change so you might as well just get use to iit. Spoken by a african amercian! who is tired of all the haters who are white and cant do a thing about it.
Fix your own house first.
Kids use the N-word all the time in my kid's high school. They don't get in trouble, because they are African-American.
I suggest you read the Autobiography of Malcolm X, and see what conclusion he comes to about whites.
I suggest she learn to write a coherent sentence if she wants to be taken seriously.
Incoherent crap. You can't even write an intelligible sentence. Stop embarrasing yourself, moron.
Obviously you are a hypocrite. Just shut up....
Ok and it's of course a tragedy, but folks; move on please.
Herk, you are a real jerk.!!! And by the way you need to show. Some repect toward african amercians and native amercians we have a right to know about our past, just like any other nationality who is interested in there, past history.
Why don't you contribute something to society instead of constantly whining and complaining. Black people use their race as an excuse for failure. No other minority in this country even comes close to being as useless as blacks.
@tim; That's pure BS and you know. You wanna see a bunch of uneducated white folk that do nothing to enhance and contribute to American society? Come to Metro Detroit. You'll find a large pool of hommies, white trash, and whigger's that do nothing but walk around stoned, showing their anger all the while their parents are smoking their medicinal marijuana.
Detroit is about 10% white, and I am sure it is full of good for nothing white people. However, those percentages of white people are insignificant next to the horde of useless blacks sucking the life out of this country.
Detroit has medical marijuana? City sucks, but that's cool.
Tim let me guess...you have black friends right? You just called an entire group of people useless, yet I bet if confronted you will insist that you are not racist. but what would I be called if I referred to the entire white race as thieving, unoriginal, desease ridden, unethical skin headed rednecked, trailer park trash...just wondering! Now do I really believe that about ALL white people? Of course not, but you? All day.
@Jocelyn – I could'nt have put it better myself... Tim really needs some exposure to the "real" world...
You racist arrogant IDIOT! 1st get it straight. There are more white people on welfare in this country that blacks! There are more white people on drugs than blacks in this country! There are more white people in jail for violent crimes in this country than blacks! There are more white people getting the "free ride" than blacks in this country! But every time I turn around your race is trying to copy us. Your trying to tan, where your hair, clothes, walk, talk, like us. As I'm writing this my "white friends who are looking over my shoulder are wishing they can meet you to see to it that you chew your food from the back of your nexk permanetly. There is no place in society for people like you who think they are superior to everybody else. Here's another fact ignorant idiot, more than half the stuff you use in your daily life were created by a black man from the sole of your shoes to the stop sign and traffic lights you use to get to work ( if you work). The 1st open heart surgery was done by a black man and countless other things. Its ashame we can get along and respect each other as God intended us to because as long as people like you exist there will always be hate, division and war. Eduacte yourself before you talk condesending to anyone else.
I'm a proud member of the human race. Let's forgive each other and move ahead.
Until the people are educated, and honesty is the core of our belief, and not fear we are destined to remain stuck in the lies of the past.
The problem is that HATE will never ask for forgiveness and the HATE that HATE made will never grant it. Those of use not infected by this have dodged a great burden.
Hear Hear !
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