Editor's Note: In today’s United States, is being black determined by the color of your skin, by your family, by what society says, or something else? Soledad O’Brien reports “Who Is Black in America?” on CNN at 8 p.m. ET/PT this Sunday, December 15.
By Yaba Blay and Soledad O'Brien, CNN
(CNN) - Yaba Blay, Ph.D. created the (1)ne Drop Project, a multiplatform endeavor that hopes to challenge perceptions of black identity. Blay, a consulting producer for "Who Is Black in America?" spoke to hundreds of those who may not immediately be recognized as "black" based on how they look, including CNN Anchor Soledad O'Brien. In this edited excerpt from her forthcoming book, Blay spoke to O'Brien about what makes a person black, and why the conversation is important.
Yaba Blay: How do you identify? Racially and culturally?
Soledad O'Brien: I’m black. I’m Latina. My mom is Cuban. Afro-Cuban. My dad is white and Australian. And I think because of my job, often a question like "How do you identify?" is really not about the question. It’s always "What side are you on?" "What perspective do you bring?"
Blay: I remember when "Black in America" first came out, and a lot of people being like “Who is she and why is SHE doing this?”
O'Brien: I think it’s a valid question. I think every question is valid. I just don’t think there should be a rule like “Oooh that is the question that shall not be asked.” I’m happy to answer any question. And I think also there is sometimes a hostility in that question. Especially around "Black in America." You know, “Who are you that gets to tell our story?” And I understand that, too.
You know, white people really have a luxury in that they get a range of stories, that they’re not defined by five stories. So I think that the difference with "Black in America" was the filter did matter. That there are only going to be five stories and we want to know exactly who you are and what your credentials are to be telling our story. And I don’t think you can do documentaries and opt out of the conversation. You know, it’s not “Well you know that’s about them, not about me.”
I think what I love about the documentary process is that you bring yourself to the documentary. And hopefully that makes you ask good questions and hopefully that makes you reveal a little bit about yourself as well.
Blay: Have you had that experience of people asking you, “What are you?”
O'Brien: Oh my God yes! All the time. People tweet me that question. I used to take great offense – like immediately sort of get annoyed, partly because I don’t think that came from a very good place. I think I read it as sort of questioning my value and reasons for being wherever I was. But now I think it’s twofold: one, I think that because I’m a journalist, people are really just trying to understand - "You’re somebody I see on TV, but I don’t know you in person so who are you?" Then, two, I think that part of my job as a journalist is to educate people about stories in a way and some of these stories I’m part of that story.
I think I was part of "Black in America" even in the context of who is the filter of the story and so it became relevant, so I really stopped hating answering that question because I felt like my job is to elaborate and explain for people who I am. I think it’s relevant. I think because of the reporting that I do I sort of owe people that answer.
Blay: So why do you think the questions are coming? Why are there questions about why Soledad is doing "Black in America?"
O'Brien: Some of it is physical presentation. I think that some of it was that I’d been anchoring shows that weren’t dealing specifically with African-Americans so it was kind of like "What are your politics? What’s your perspective? Who are you?" I think sometimes it’s as straightforward as that.
At screenings for "Black in America" I’ve heard people say, “Well you know I never thought you were black until you did Katrina and then I thought you were black.” And I’d say, “That’s so fascinating. What was it that made you think I was black?” And then someone else would say, “Yeah, but she’s married to a white man.” And I’m like "OK, so does that make me less black and how in your mind does that math work? That there’s a certain number and if you get below that number because you get points for who you marry and you lose points for where you live and how you speak?"
But even just going back to the questions consistently, I thought it was just illuminating. I thought it was just so fascinating to really open up a conversation about race. Now we’re up to "Black in America 5" and we’re having that conversation.
Blay: So what makes a person black?
O'Brien: I certainly don’t think it’s skin color. And I certainly don’t think it’s how well you speak the language. And I’m not sure I can answer that question thoroughly because my consciousness about race was really implanted in me by my parents. I would say I’m black because my parents said I’m black. I’m black because my mother’s black. I’m black because I grew up in a family of all black people. I knew I was black because I grew up in an all-white neighborhood. And my parents, as part of their protective mechanisms that they were going to give to us made it very clear what we were.
My mother would say, “Do not let anybody tell you you’re not black. Do not let anybody tell you you’re not Latina.” And I remember thinking her comments were so weird, like "What is she talking about?" There weren’t people coming over to my house saying “You’re not black!” We stuck out!
But now I understand what she was going for. And I am very grateful for those conversations because I think it implants in your head sort of the perspective that my parents wanted us to have. We were raised that way in a place that was often not particularly hospitable and sometimes out and out hostile to people of color. I guess my parents taught me very early that how other people perceive me really was not my problem or my responsibility. It was much more based on how I perceived me.
Your culture makes you black. It is not really based on how you look. Although Barack Obama was raised partly in Kansas, over-seas and Hawaii he really was a part of and embraced black culture including marrying a black woman.
That clown isn't "black"...sure he played the role but clearly he's confused like most biracials. THE ONLY REASON he was elected in the first place is the fact that he's half white. Never mind the Kenyan side- the half white is what got him elected....and he had to marry a bw because it wouldn't have gone over well with a white wife. You see how some of these white fools lost their fukin mind over some stupid Cheerios commercial- imagine them seeing Barry with 'Becky'...
you need to revert back to the first instance , and that is that we're all prejudiced and racists by birth; noone white cares about your psychological claptrap, monkey...facts is facts as someone like you would say
You still around boy? After that midnight session with your mom I thought that I wouldn't have the pleasure. But like a good chuck your in it to get pimped even more- which I don't mind. Tell moms I'll "think about it"- you know -her last text to me...
i have some consternation, given the time elapse since I've looked at this blog, as to why germans with balloons are relevant here and though I can enter into a realm of inanity I don't dwell long...I will attempt o read some of the article with mich kleine deutch and get back to you
I am totally amazed at white people's freedom to describe what you are or aren't to other people in your presence as they introduce you. (Isn't my name enough?). My parents always taught us to never allow someone else to define you because in this great America you can be what you want to be....we are creole. But now I even experience Blacks doing the same thing.... nationality and race/heritage are not the same and how a person defines themselves is up to them. In Africa the tongue makes the distinction as to who you are.....not just skin colour. So since working in Africa for 10 years, I've come to appreciate tribal distinction and maybe we should in America. (My tribe is the U.S. Air Force!)
If you’re born in africa and move to america…. you’re african american regardless of race. There’s a difference between race and nationality folks. A mind is a terrible thing to waste
Yes, but Africa is not a nation, so you can't equate it to a nationality to be African either. But you are correct in pointing out that many races are in Africa and so using the term African is a misnomer. Another common mistake is people who refer to Hispanics as not white. Hispanic is part of the white race that is why your U. S. Census asks if you are white hispanic or white non-hispanic.
I am a woman married to a wonderful man. My race is white his race is black and yes it is that simple. I have been told we dont fit the "typical black/white couple becuase I am not overweight. I hear all the time from peopke that most black guys go for heavy white women because the women are insecure and cant find a white man.....Really?? Do you really believe that? I am a very secure successful happy attractive white woman and no I an not overweight and he is a very secure successful attractive black man. We have been together for 12yrs married 8yrs and race is not an issue in our home so I dont understand why people make it their issue. Our daughter's birth certificate states she is Caucasian and the reason......that is what the hospital put on her records. I did not ask nor did I care what was on her b/c all we cared about was our beautiful new baby girl. Rascism is an issue in this World its not just America. I have had people tell me "I never would have pictured you married to a black man" and "you're not the typical black guy type". I am amazed at how comfortable people are with stating their opinions to me about my marriage. I have never told someone "Wow I would have never pictured you with an overweight bald headed man" or "You dont seem like the kind of man that would marry a fat girl". People are NOT born racists it is something they are taught. PEOPLE ARE RACIST....even against people of the same race. My husband gets comments from other black men about being "light skinned" that just tells me that person has insecurities within himself. God made you the way are and its not perfect....no one is therefore you can allow your insecurities to ruin your life or you can except everyone for who they are and create an opinion of someone by their character not their skin.....you can choose be rascitst or you can choose not to be. If you choose to allow skin to define someone be very careful in life because it is VERY possible almost a guarantee you will have to depend on someone of a different race than yours and they may even one day save your life. If your child is in the hospital struggling to live are you going to ask what the race of the Dr saving your childs life or if the Dr.is light skinned or dark skinned? And heaven forbid you do.....are you going to risk losing your child by asking for a Dr. of a certain ethnicity? I find it very ironic and hypocritical that white women spend millions of dollars each year to make their skin darker (tanning beds)
There is no way I can know what their motives are, but the fact is, at least 75% of the white women I see with black men are seriously overweight. Most of those that aren't appear to be lower class, based on the way they dress, their tattoos (and I mean the TYPE, not just the fact that they have them) or talk.
I often wonder why these women are attracted to black men when statistics show the vast majority of black men leave their women after kids are born.
<>because for this very elite group of individuals anything will do
At 75 years old I am always amazed at the comments re racisim. Growing up in New England in the 40's and 50's there was no racisism. Blacks and whites went to school together, played sports together and lived in the same tenements together. I didnt see racisim until I joined the military and was sent to Florida and then the middle east where I was astonished. Coming home nothing had changed but the government seemed to be trying to perpetuate the myth that all whites hated blacks and vice versa. It wasnt true, we still got along fine, each race having equal educational opportunities as well as employment opportunities. It seems to me this is is contrived problem initiated by politicians to enhance their winning elections by fragmenting the vote. If it is true that racisim exists today it's because of affirmative action and political maneuvering. Even today the government spend hundreds of thousands of dollars on seminars for government workers telling them the same sad bogus story. It's political hijacking.
LOL- "myth" about whites hating blacks? All you have to do is go read the anti-black racist graffiti on any restroom to see that. Most whites have been ingrained with the silly notion that their white skin somehow makes them "better" than anybody else. The history of this country is prove of that. If you are "allegedly" 75 then you should be cognizant of that- but like so many other whites you probably buried your head up your ass and continued to enjoy your white skin privileges...less than 75 years ago blacks were forced to sit in the back of the bus in the south- has there been any time when whites were forced to do so? No? I thought so...
What a stupid question. African Americans are black. Any other questions?
...as George Clinton (the musician ) said...:fantasity is reality..".....all humans came from Africa...that means that we are all different shades of BLACK......deal wit it!!
@Mike Armstrong:Not because humans came from Africa meant that they were Black!! Did any of you ever think of that?????!!!
Americans keep racism going with the nonsense of having "race" on every piece of paper one has to fill out. Also calling people from other parts of the world "African-American" is assinine. What makes American think the world is "American." Are the REAL Africans who has never been to the US African-Americans. Even among "black" people there is prejudice. The reason the American Idol name Doolittle did not win and Jordin Sparks won was all to do with skin color. Doolittle was a much better singer. But ALL Americans go on looks. So very sad. And you only inherit from one side. Therefore The President got nothing from his white mother and nothing from growing up with his white grandparents. It is his father whom he met twice? who had all the influence according to the BLACK middle eastern man on Fox.
Sandra- people like Soledad Obrien keeps it going for her self promotion. You notice that CNN will never do a special on White in America and give the world a peek behind closed doors there. They will never shine a light on why certain whites kill or rob or rape or carry on like that old guy in Alabama kidnapping that little boy. So hence you have these "Black in America" VOLUME TEN THOUSAND OR SO AND NOT ONE "WHITE IN AMERICA" special...
Well put and eloquently stated! Soledad would disagree with you.LOL
The definition of "blackness". Some people in this program defined it as "an experience." If that were true, people of other races raised in black neighborhoods or households would be seen as black, and they aren't. Angela Davis said it was the culture you were raised in, "who loved you." If that we're the case, black children adopted by white parents would be seen as white, and they aren't. Some said it was skin color, but I would say if that we're the case dark-skinned East Indians would be decidedly Black, and they aren't. The one drop rule was broughht up a few times and some said it was still in effect. I say no. Blackness in this racialized society is more than skin color or tone, more than experience or culture, it's defined by a combination of racist stereotypes, and determinations about a person, based on Sterotypes–brown or dark skin, certain facial features, and hair texture. The young lady from North Africa, is African. She is as African as an East Indian is Asian. If the U.S. Census sees it differently, they should explain the difference between these two comparisons. I see the fundamental problem as being directly related to slavery in this country and creation of the terms " black" and "white", which are truly meaningless–the definition changes. Many early immigrants (Italians, Jews) were not initially defined as "white", for example. The history of racial terms/color used to justify subjugation and minimalization of a group of people is why this country continues to see things, predominantly, in black and white. References to the color (red, yellow) of anyone else is rarely used, in fact, everyone else is "brown" and mostly other people of color use this term. This country's racist history is why when the term "racism" is mentioned, Americans immediately think in terms of "black" and "white".
What I can't stand is how stories such as this always talk about being dark skinned as some form of hatred, and never showing bi-racial individuals with dark skinned. I am tired of the potrayal of the stereotypes of those with darker complexions as having a burden. I love having mahoghony skin, and would never want to change that. I've been mostly discriminated against mostly by black people,m and have been accepted mostly by white people.
Yes, I agree with that. I am light skinned black, never seen myself as anything but black and it;s always dark-skinned black people who think I want to be white or make jokes about my color. I'm sure if I made a joke back about their color, there would be hell to pay.
In my family I and my children along with other light skinned members are considered to be white. The majority of my family are tan to dark brown, but I and my children are the lightest of all. I was told that we're mixed with Irish, Native American and black. But we all are black. All of the light skinned members have dark spouses and the dark have light skinned spouses. My maternal grandmother is Irish and Native American, but she was considered black. I've had that experience where I was asked what are you? I have people coming up to me and speaking spanish as though I were hispanic or latino... I AM BLACK!
I love the show, but as a black Cuban I felt that we were not included in your show. Even though you mention that you are half Cuban. As a young man growing up in this country I felt discriminated also. By the white Cubans, and by the blacks even though many of us identify our self as Afro-Cuban, it were not enough for them. Because our heavy accent when we speak, our on culture, which different from theirs, but which have African roots. So as my children grow older,. How should they identify themselves?
What defines you? Maybe it’s the shade of your skin, the place you grew up, the accent in your words, the make up of your family, the gender you were born with, the intimate relationships you chose to have or your generation? As the American identity changes we will be there to report it. In America is a venue for creative and timely sharing of news that explores who we are. Reach us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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